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Predictability of Saccadic Behaviors is Modified by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Over Human Posterior Parietal Cortex
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rHuman Brain Mapping 00:00–00 (2011)r Predictability of Saccadic Behaviors is Modified by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Over Human Posterior Parietal Cortex Chang-Mao Chao,1,2,3Philip Tseng,1,4Tzu-Yu Hsu,1,3,5Jia-Han Su,6 Ovid J.L. Tzeng,1,3,5,7Daisy L. Hung,1,3,5Neil G. Muggleton,8 and Chi-Hung Juan1,5,9* 1Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan 2Department of Life Science, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan 3Institute of Neuroscience, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan 4Department of Psychology, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 5Laboratories for Cognitive Neuroscience, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan 6Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan 7Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 8Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience & Department of Psychology, University College London, London, United Kingdom 9Institute of Network Learning Technology, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan rr Abstract: Predictability in the visual environment provides a powerful cue for eff i cient processing of scenes and objects. Recently, studies have suggested that the directionality and magnitude of saccade curvature can be informative as to how the visual system processes predictive information. The pres- ent study investigated the role of the right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC) in shaping saccade curva- tures in the context of predictive and non-predictive visual cues. We used an orienting paradigm that incorporated manipulation of target location predictability and delivered transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over rPPC. Participants were presented with either an informative or uninforma- tive cue to upcoming target locations. Our results showed that rPPC TMS generally increased sac- cade latency and saccade error rates. Intriguingly, rPPC TMS increased curvatures away from the distractor only when the target location was unpredictable and decreased saccadic errors towards the distractor. These effects on curvature and accuracy were not present when the target location was predictable. These results dissociate the strong contingency between saccade latency and saccade curvature and also indicate that rPPC plays an important role in allocating and suppressing attention to distractors when the target demands visual disambiguation. Furthermore, the present study sug- gests that, like the frontal eye f i elds, rPPC is critically involved in determining saccade curvature Contractgrantsponsor:NationalScienceCouncil,Taiwan; Contract grant numbers: 97-2511-S-008-005-MY3, 99-2410-H-008- 022-MY3,96-2413-H-008-001-MY3,98-2410-H-008-010-MY3,98- 2517-S-004-001-MY3,97-2511-S-008-008-MY5;Contractgrant sponsor: UK Medical Research Council; Contract grant sponsor: National Science Council, Taiwan, Fulbright scholarship; Contract grant numbers: 98-2918-I-008-011. *Correspondence to: Chi-Hung Juan, Institute of Cognitive Neuro- science,NationalCentralUniversity,No.300,JhongdaRd., Jhongli 320, Taiwan. E-mail: chijuan@cc.ncu.edu.tw Received for publication 14 May 2010; Revised 5 August 2010; Accepted 12 August 2010 DOI: 10.1002/hbm.21162 Published online in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). VC2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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