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外2018人耳廓肌肉的皮层表现:一项由机器人控制的TMS映射和fMRI研究
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RESEARCH ARTICLE Cortical representation of auricular muscles in humans: A robot-controlled TMS mapping and fMRI study Jonna Meincke1, Manuel Hewitt1, Markus Reischl2, Ru ¨diger Rupp3, Carsten Schmidt- Samoa4, David Liebetanz1* 1 Clinic of Clinical Neurophysiology, Georg August University of Go ¨ttingen, University Medical Center, Go ¨ttingen, Germany, 2 Institute for Applied Computer Science, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany, 3 Spinal Cord Injury Center, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany, 4 Department of Cognitive Neurology, Georg August University of Go ¨ttingen, University Medical Center, Go ¨ttingen, Germany * dliebet@gwdg.de Abstract Background Most humans have the ability to activate the auricular muscles. Although (intentional) control suggests an involvement of higher cortical centers underlying posterior auricular muscle (PAM) activation, the cortical representation of the auricular muscles is still unknown. Methods With the purpose of identifying a possible cortical representation area we performed auto- mated robotic and image-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) mapping (n = 8) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (n = 13). For topographical comparison, a similar experimental protocol was applied for the first dorsal interosseus muscle (FDI) of the hand. Results The calculated centers of gravity (COGs) of both muscles were located on the precentral gyrus with the PAM COGs located more laterally compared to the FDI. The distance between the mean PAM and mean FDI COG was 26.3 mm. The TMS mapping results were confirmed by fMRI, which showed a dominance of cortical activation within the precentral gyrus during the corresponding motor tasks. The correspondence of TMS and fMRI results was high. Conclusion The involvement of the primary motor cortex in PAM activation might point to an evolved function of the auricular muscles in humans and/or the ability of intentional (and selective) muscle activation. PLOS ONE | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0201277 July 27, 2018 1 / 21 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 OPEN ACCESS Citation: Meincke J, Hewitt M, Reischl M, Rupp R, Schmidt-Samoa C, Liebetanz D (2018) Cortical representation of auricular muscles in humans: A robot-controlled TMS mapping and fMRI study. PLoS ONE 13(7): e0201277. https://doi.org/ 10.1371/journal.pone.0201277 Editor: Luigi Cattaneo, Universita degli Studi di Verona, ITALY Received: September 15, 2017 Accepted: July 12, 2018 Published: July 27, 2018 Copyright: 2018 Meincke et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Data Availability Statement: All TMS raw data are available online at https://doi.org/10.25625/ PQBDR5. The ethical regulations of our university do not allow us to share the original MRI data of subjects as it contains individual information, which cannot be de-identified. The fMRI data will be made available on request (klinischeNeurophysiologie@med.uni-goettingen. de). Funding: The study was supported by the German Ministry of Education and Reearch (FKZ

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