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外2012运动补偿机器人经颅磁刺激的手助定位和接触压力控制
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Int J CARS (2012) 7:845–852 DOI 10.1007/s11548-012-0677-6 ORIGINAL ARTICLE Hand-assisted positioning and contact pressure control for motion compensated robotized transcranial magnetic stimulation Lars Richter · Ralf Bruder · Achim Schweikard Received: 11 January 2012 / Accepted: 28 February 2012 / Published online: 16 March 2012 CARS 2012 Abstract Purpose In Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), the principle of magnetic induction is used to stimulate the brain non-invasively. Currently, robotic TMS systems are devel- oped to guarantee precise coil placement on the head and in this way achieve the repeatability of stimulation results. However, usability concerns such as the complicated coil positioning are still unsolved for motion compensated robot- ized TMS. In this paper, we demonstrate the integration of a force-torque control into a robotic TMS system to improve usability, safety, and precision. Methods We integrated a force-torque sensor between robot effector and TMS coil. Coil calibration and grav- ity compensation have been developed. Based on them, we have implemented hand-assisted positioning for easy and fast coil placement. Furthermore, we have enhanced the exist- ing motion compensation algorithms with a contact pressure control. Results The positioning time for an experienced user decreased up to 40% with the help of hand-assisted position- ing in comparison with not hand-assisted robotized position- ing. It also enabled an inexperienced user to use the system safely. Conclusion Integration of a force-torque control into the motioncompensatedrobotizedTMSsystemgreatlyenhances system’s usability, which is a prerequisite for integration in the clinical workflow and clinical acceptance. L. Richter (B ) · R. Bruder · A. Schweikard Institute for Robotics and Cognitive Systems, University of Lübeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23562 Lübeck, Germany e-mail: richter@rob.uni-luebeck.de L. Richter Graduate School for Computing in Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Lübeck, 23562 Lübeck, Germany Keywords Transcranial magnetic stimulation · Robotized TMS · Force control · Motion compensation · Medical robotics Introduction Currently, neuro-navigation has become a standard technique for navigated coil placement during Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) [19]. An optical tracking device tracks the TMS coil and patient’s head and allows to position the coil based on three-dimensional data, e.g., MRI head scans. However, the physician or investigator still manually places and holds the coil at the stimulation area as accurately as pos- sible. As a standard repetitive TMS (rTMS) treatment lasts 20–30min [6,10], holding the coil by hand is a challenging task. In many setups, rigid coil clamps are therefore used to retain the coil during stimulation after manual placement [3]. In contrast to manual placement, robotized systems, as a recent technique for TMS research [7], combine the ben- efits of neuro-navigated TMS with automation. Robotized TMS provides automatic coil positioning with high accuracy, repeatability, and maintenance of accuracy using motion compensation techniques. For that very reason, the patient’s head must not be fixated during treatment. Currently, two dif- ferent engineering approaches for development of a robotic TMS system exist: Either a specialized but limited applica- tion-orientated robot is designed or a common flexible design is used and adapted to the TMS specifications. In [9,15,21], a custom-built approach for a TMS robot is given. The c-shaped robot, with its non-standard kinematics, provides coil placement around the upper half of the patient head. Robot velocity and workspace are strongly restricted on a hardware level to achieve a maximum of patient safety. As a result, the robot can only compensate for small and slow head movements. A custom-made coil is integrated into the 123

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